Air conditioner

The air conditioner is a machine capable of developing heat sensitive (positive or negative) that is exchanged with a fluid, which in turn put into circulation gives this heat to an environment for the purpose of innalzarne or lower the temperature.

Operation and construction details
The of an air conditioner operation is based on the use of a thermodynamic cycle that is carried on a heat transfer fluid.
The air conditioner is typically consists of the following essential elements:
compressor: has the purpose of compressing the fluid, that is, increase the pressure; in the compressor, the fluid is in the gaseous state; in accordance with the equations of state of the gas (in the simplest case the ideal gas law) increasing the pressure of a gas also increases its temperature, to which the gas at the outlet from the compressor has a temperature and a pressure higher than at the entrance;
condenser: has the purpose of condensing the gas, that is, bring it to the liquid state; This change of state is done by subtracting heat to the gas; this heat is released into the environment;
expansion device: it corresponds to a narrowing of the duct; during the passage from such a bottleneck, the liquid is subjected to localized pressure losses, for which its pressure decreases and as a result its temperature;
Evaporator: has the purpose of vaporizing the liquid, absorbing heat from the outside.
In civilian use is common configuration that has two separate units:
external drive, host engine conditioner and usually characterized by the radial fan;
an indoor unit (split), which shall put into circulation the air (conditioned or not), spreading it on the premises through a special slot.

Appearance
The air conditioners may be constituted by two units, one said internal and said external unit the second unit (with one or two fans). Between the two units run two copper pipes for the circulation of fluids (one input and one output) and the cables of the control and command connections, usually while the power supply to the outdoor unit is brought from the network and from it to ‘indoor unit.
Both units in need of an exhaust pipe to evacuate the water formed by condensation. Lately they entered into trade machines also formed by a single element which, if leaning against a wall, to perform both of the two functions described above but with remarkable performance limits and high purchasing cost.
The indoor units can then be divided into five types of construction:
wall: for wall installations in high position;
Floor: type fan coil;
Console: for no false ceiling installation;
Cassette: for recessed installation in suspended ceilings;
ducted: for the assembled installation in air ducts and anemostats.

Only cold and heat pump
The air conditioners are divided into two large families:
those called just cool
those said heat pump.
The substantial difference is that those in the heat pump, in addition to cool the air in summer, in the winter can also heat by reversing the operation cycle, subtracting heat from outside air and injects it in the internal environment (obviously more is low the lower the outside temperature will be the performance).

A further distinction is that related to their feeding and their operations. From this point of view, there are two large families:
air conditioners on-off
air conditioners inverter.
The technology of the on-off conditioners is older, very simple and is less expensive, but has a high consumption, because the compressor, as soon as the appliance is switched on, it goes immediately to full power and remains there, regardless of how much of it can actually serve, then stop completely when the set temperature has been reached and down at maximum when the temperature is no longer such. The inverter air conditioners instead to have a technology called “modulating”: under the control of an electronic system, is used only the power required to reach the set temperature value. The compressor power is initially a maximum and then decrease gradually until this value is reached, and then is used only the minimum necessary to maintain it, without stopping.

If the air conditioner is operated for several hours (for example at night) it is economically convenient the inverter model, otherwise the higher cost compared to on-off system is not depreciated, since the modulating function intervenes only at the moment when it is to reach the desired temperature.

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